The Land O'Lakes Test Kitchen

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Ingredient Substitutions

Ingredient Substitutions

If you’re out of an ingredient or running low, look here for substitutions for more than 90 common ingredients.

  • Alcohol/Liqueur

    Substitute the same amount (volume) of liquid in the recipe as originally called for with alcohol. Depending on the recipe, apple juice or chicken broth often makes a good substitution for wine. When using flavored liqueurs, extracts can be substituted if you make up the balance of the liquid with water.

    For example, if a recipe calls for 2 tablespoons Grand Marnier (orange liqueur) you could use 1/2 teaspoon orange extract and 5 1/2 teaspoons water. Just be sure to get the same level of orange flavor. This may take some experimentation.

  • Allspice, Ground

    Substitute the same amount (volume) of liquid in the recipe as originally called for with alcohol. Depending on the recipe, apple juice or chicken broth often makes a good substitution for wine. When using flavored liqueurs, extracts can be substituted if you make up the balance of the liquid with water.

    For example, if a recipe calls for 2 tablespoons Grand Marnier (orange liqueur) you could use 1/2 teaspoon orange extract and 5 1/2 teaspoons water. Just be sure to get the same level of orange flavor. This may take some experimentation.

  • Apple Pie Spice

    Substitute 2 teaspoons ground cinnamon, 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg and a pinch ground allspice for 1 tablespoon apple pie spice.

  • Baking Chocolate

    Substitute 1-ounce unsweetened chocolate for 1-ounce baking chocolate.

  • Baking Powder

    Substitute 1/4 teaspoon baking soda, 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar and 1/4 teaspoon corn starch for 1 teaspoon baking powder.

  • Baking Soda

    There is no recommended substitute for baking soda.

  • Barbecue Sauce

    Substitute 1 cup ketchup and 1/2 to 1 teaspoon liquid smoke seasoning for 1 cup barbecue sauce.

  • Beef Broth

    Substitute 1 cup boiling water and 1 teaspoon instant beef bouillon granules (or 1 bouillon cube) for 1 cup broth.

  • Bouquet Garni

    Substitute 1/2 teaspoon dried parsley flakes, 1/2 teaspoon dried thyme leave and 1 bay leaf (crushed) for 1 teaspoon bouquet garni.

  • Breadcrumbs

    Substitute 3 to 4 slices oven-dried bread crushed for 1 cup breadcumbs.

    Substitute 3/4 cup cracker crumbs for 1 cup breadcrumbs.

    Substitute 1 1/4 cups croutons or stuffing cubes, crushed for 1 cup breadcrumbs.

  • Broth, Beef or Chicken

    Substitute 1 cup boiling water and 1 teaspoon instant bouillon granules (or 1 bouillon cube) for 1 cup broth.

  • Butter

    Substitute unsalted butter for salted butter in any recipe. It is NOT necessary to add salt.

    Substitute whipped butter, based on weight, not volume for stick butter.

    Substitute stick margarine made from vegetable oil in most baking applications except in pastry recipes and candy, made from a boiled syrup. Using margarine will produce a softer dough than one made with butter, and may not have the same flavor as butter.

    Any of these LAND O LAKES® products can be used successfully in baking and cooking:

    LAND O LAKES® Butter
    LAND O LAKES® Margarine
    LAND O LAKES® Fresh Buttery TasteTM Spread

  • Buttermilk

    Substitute 1 tablespoon vinegar or lemon juice plus enough milk to equal 1 cup for 1 cup of buttermilk. Let stand 5 minutes.

    Substitute 1/2 cup plain yogurt plus 1/2 cup milk for 1 cup buttermilk.

  • Cardamom, Ground

    Substitute 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon and 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger for 1 teaspoon ground cardamom. (Flavor may vary.)

  • Chicken Broth

    Substitute 1 cup boiling water and 1 teaspoon instant chicken bouillon granules (or 1 bouillon cube) for 1 cup broth.

  • Chinese Five-Spice Powder

    Substitute a mixture of 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon, 1 teaspoon ground fennel, 1 teaspoon ground cloves, 1/2 teaspoon ground star anise and 1/2 teaspoon ground Szechuan peppercorns for 4 teaspoons Chinese Five-Spice Powder.

  • Chocolate Bittersweet

    Substitute 1 (1-ounce) square semi-sweet baking chocolate for 1 (1-ounce) square bittersweet baking chocolate.

  • Chocolate Chips, Semi-Sweet

    Substitute 6 ounces semi-sweet baking chocolate, chopped, for 1 cup (6 ounces) semi-sweet chocolate chips.

  • Chocolate, Semi-Sweet

    Substitute 3 tablespoons chocolate chips for 1 (1-ounce) square semi-sweet baking chocolate.

    Substitute 1 (1-ounce) square bittersweet baking chocolate for 1 (1-ounce) square semi-sweet bittersweet baking chocolate.

    Substitute 1 (1-ounce) square unsweetened baking chocolate and 1 tablespoon granulated sugar for 1 (1-ounce) square semi-sweet baking chocolate.

    Substitute 6 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder, 7 tablespoons sugar and 1/4 cup butter, margarine or shortening for 6 ounces semi-sweet baking chocolate.

  • Chocolate, Sweet Baking

    Substitute 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder, 4 teaspoons sugar and 1 tablespoon butter, shortening or vegetable oil for 1 - ounce German's sweet baking chocolate.

  • Chocolate, Unsweetened

    Substitute 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa and 1 tablespoon butter, margarine or shortening for 1- ounce unsweetened baking chocolate.

  • Chocolate, White

    Substitute 1- ounce milk chocolate for 1 ounce white chocolate. (Color and flavor will vary.)

  • Cinnamon, Ground

    Substitute 1/2 teaspoon ground allspice or 1 teaspoon ground cardamom for 1 teaspoon ground cinnamon.

  • Cocoa, Unsweetened

    Substitute equal amount of Dutch-processed cocoa for unsweetened cocoa.

  • Coffee

    Substitute 1 cup hot water and 2 teaspoons instant coffee granules or espresso powder for 1 cup strong brewed coffee.

  • Cooking Sprays, No-Stick

    Substitute for shortening to prepare baking sheets and baking pans.

  • Cornstarch

    Substitute 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour for 1 tablespoon cornstarch.

  • Corn Syrup, Dark

    Substitute 1 cup light corn syrup for 1 cup dark corn syrup. (Flavor will be affected somewhat.)

    Substitute 3/4 cup light corn syrup and 1/4 cup light molasses for 1 cup dark corn syrup.

  • Corn Syrup, Light

    Substitute 1 cup dark corn syrup for 1 cup light corn syrup (Flavor will be affected somewhat.)

    Substitute 1 1/4 cups granulated sugar dissolved in 1/4 cup hot water or liquid used in recipe for 1 cup light corn syrup.

  • Cream

    Substitute 3 tablespoons melted butter and whole milk to equal 1 cup for 1 cup cream (20% fat) (coffee cream)

  • Cream of Tartar

    There is no recommended substitution for cream of tartar.

  • Eggs

    Substitute 1/4 cup refrigerated egg product for 1 whole egg.

  • Egg Whites

    Substitute 2 teaspoons meringue powder and 3 tablespoons water for 1 large egg white.

    Substitute powdered egg whites for most recipes requiring egg whites. Follow directions on powdered egg whites container.

    Substitute 2 tablespoons liquid egg whites for 1 egg white in applications except meringue and angel food cake recipes.

  • Espresso Instant Coffee Powder

    Substitute 2 to 3 teaspoons instant coffee granules for 1 tablespoon espresso coffee powder.

    Substitute 2 1/2 tablespoons instant cappuccino drink mix for 1 tablespoon espresso coffee powder.

  • Flour, All-Purpose

    Substitute 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons cake flour for 1 cup all-purpose flour.

    Substitute self-rising flour minus the salt in yeast bread recipes for all-purpose flour.

    Substitute self-rising flour minus the salt and baking powder in quick bread recipes for all-purpose flour.

    Substitute 3/4 cup all-purpose flour and 1/4 cup soy flour for 1 cup all-purpose flour in recipes such as quick breads and pancakes to reduce the carbohydrates.

  • Flour, All-Purpose as Thickener

    Substitute 1/2 tablespoon cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch, arrowroot starch, or 1 tablespoon quick-cooking tapioca for 1 tablespoon all-purpose flour.

  • Flour Bread

    Substitute 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 2 teaspoons gluten flour for 1 cup unsifted bread flour.

  • Flour Cake

    Substitute 1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour for 1 cup cake flour.

  • Flour, Gluten-Free Blend

    Substitute Gluten-Free Flour Blend for regular flour. To make flour blend, combine 2 cups rice flour, 2/3 cup potato starch, 1/3 cup tapioca flour and 1 teaspoon xanthan gum. Use appropriate amount for recipe; store remainder in container with tight-fitting lid.

  • Flour Pastry

    Substitute 2/3 cup all-purpose flour and 1/3 cup cake flour for 1 cup pastry flour.

  • Flour, Self-Rising

    Substitute 1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/4 teaspoon salt for 1 cup self-rising flour.

  • Flour, Whole Wheat

    Substitute 1 cup minus 3 tablespoons all-purpose flour and 3 tablespoons wheat germ for 1 cup whole wheat flour.

    Substitute 1/2 cup whole wheat flour and 1/2 cup all-purpose flour for 1 cup whole wheat flour.

  • Garlic

    Substitute 1/2 teaspoon instant minced garlic or 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder for 1 clove minced garlic.

  • Garlic Salt

    Substitute 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder and 3/4 teaspoon salt for 1 teaspoon garlic salt.

  • Ginger, Fresh

    Substitute 1/8 teaspoon ground ginger for 1 tablespoon minced or grated fresh ginger.

  • Ginger, Ground

    Substitute 1 teaspoon ground allspice for 1 teaspoon ground ginger. (Flavor will vary.)

  • Half and Half

    Substitute 3/4 cup whole milk and 1/4 cup heavy whipping cream for 1 cup half & half.

    Substitute 1 tablespoon melted unsalted butter and enough whole milk to equal 1 cup for 1 cup half and half.

  • Herbs

    Substitute 1 teaspoon dried herbs for 1 tablespoon fresh herbs.

  • Honey

    Substitute 1 1/4 cups granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid (use whatever liquid is called for in the recipe) for 1 cup honey.

    Substitute 1/2 cup granulated sugar and 3/4 cup maple syrup, light or dark corn syrup or light molasses for 1 cup honey.

  • Italian Seasoning

    Substitute 1 teaspoon dried oregano leaves, 1/2 teaspoon dried basil leaves and 1/2 teaspoon dried thyme leaves for 2 teaspoons Italian seasoning.

  • Ketchup

    Substitute 1/2 cup tomato sauce and 2 tablespoons sugar and 1 tablespoon vinegar for 1/2 cup ketchup.

  • Lemon Juice

    Substitute 1/2 teaspoon vinegar for 1 teaspoon lemon juice.

  • Maple Syrup

    Substitute 1 cup honey for 1 cup pure maple syrup.

    Substitute 1 cup minus 3 tablespoons light molasses for 1 cup pure maple syrup.

  • Marshmallow Creme

    Substitute 16 large or 160 miniature marshmallows plus 2 teaspoons light corn syrup for 1 cup marshmallow creme. Place in double boiler or stainless steel bowl over simmering water; stir until smooth.

  • Marshmallows

    Substitute 10 miniature marshmallows for 1 large marshmallow.

    Substitute 8 to 10 large marshmallows for 1 cup miniature marshmallows.

  • Milk, Evaporated

    Substitute 1 cup half & half or whole milk for 1 cup evaporated milk.

  • Milk, Sweetened Condensed

    Substitute 1 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 2/3 cup granulated sugar, 1/2 cup boiling water and 3 tablespoons melted butter for 1 (14-ounce) can sweetened condensed milk.

  • Milk, Whole

    Substitute 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water for 1 cup whole milk.

    Substitute 1 cup fat free skim milk plus 2 teaspoons melted butter for 1 cup whole milk.

    NOTE: Whole milk is higher in total fat than low-fat milk. If a baking recipe calls for whole milk, you may be able to substitute a low-fat milk variety like fat free, 1% or 2% fat. Be cautious about substituting fat free milk in pudding, custard and sauce recipes.

    These recipes rely on the dairy fat for added texture and flavor. Baked items such as cakes and cookies can usually tolerate the use of a lower fat milk.

  • Molasses

    Substitute 1 cup honey, dark corn syrup or maple syrup for 1 cup molasses. (Flavor will be affected.)

    Substitute 1 cup light molasses for 1 cup dark molasses.

    Substitute 3/4 cup light or dark brown sugar dissolved in 1/4 cup hot water (or liquid in recipe) for 1 cup molasses.

  • Mustard, Dry

    Substitute 1 tablespoon prepared mustard minus 1 teaspoon liquid from recipe for 1 teaspoon dry mustard.

  • Mustard, Prepared

    Substitute 1 teaspoon dry mustard plus 1 to 2 teaspoons vinegar or water for 1 tablespoon prepared mustard.

  • Nutmeg, Ground

    Substitute 1 teaspoon ground allspice or 1 - 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cinnamon or 1 teaspoon ground mace for 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg.

  • Oats

    Substitute 1 teaspoon ground allspice or 1 - 1 1/2 teaspoons ground cinnamon or 1 teaspoon ground mace for 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg.

  • Oil

    Substitute 1 cup melted butter, margarine or shortening for 1 cup oil. (Recipe results may vary. Texture and appearance may be affected.)

  • Onion

    Substitute 1/4 cup instant minced onion or flaked onion for 1 cup (1 medium) chopped onion.

    Substitute 1 teaspoon onion powder for 1 cup (1 medium) chopped onion.

  • Orange Juice

    Substitute 3/4 cup water plus 1/4 cup frozen orange juice concentrate for 1 cup orange juice.

  • Poultry Seasoning

    Substitute 1/4 teaspoon ground thyme plus 3/4 teaspoon ground sage for 1 teaspoon poultry seasoning.

  • Preserves

    Substitute 1/4 cup jelly for 1/4 cup preserves. Consistency will be thinner with jelly.

  • Pumpkin

    Substitute cooked fresh sugar or pie pumpkin for an equal amount of canned pumpkin.

    When cooking pumpkin select a sugar pie pumpkin. This variety of pumpkin is small and sweet, with dark orange-colored flesh. A 3-pound fresh pumpkin will yield approximately 1 cup cooked pumpkin.

    To cook fresh pumpkin: Heat oven to 375° F. Place small whole pumpkin onto ungreased baking sheet. Poke top of pumpkin several times to let steam escape while baking. Bake, uncovered, for 45 to 60 minutes or until fork tender. Cool 30 minutes.

    Cut pumpkin in half. Scoop out seeds and discard or roast separately for a snack. Scrape pumpkin flesh from skin into food processor bowl fitted with a metal blade.

    Puree pulp in food processor or blender or mash thoroughly with a potato masher. Place pumpkin puree in a strainer and drain at least 30 minutes to make sure fresh cooked pumpkin becomes as thick as canned pumpkin. It is very important to remove as much moisture as possible. Refrigerate or freeze remaining puree.

  • Pumpkin Pie Spice

    Substitute 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon plus 1/4 teaspoon ground ginger, 1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg and 1/8 teaspoon ground cloves for 1 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice.

  • Raisins

    Substitute equal amount of other chopped dried fruit for raisins. Golden raisins, dark raisins, dried cranberries and currants can be used interchangeably in baking recipes.

  • Rice

    Substitute 1 cup uncooked brown rice for 1 cup uncooked white rice.

  • Salt

    Substitute Kosher salt, iodized salt or sea salt for table salt in baking.

  • Shortening

    Substitute 1 cup butter or margarine for 1 cup regular or butter-flavored shortening.

    DO NOT substitute vegetable oil for shortening when recipe calls for melted shortening.

  • Sour Cream

    Substitute 1 cup plain yogurt for 1 cup sour cream.

  • Sugar, Dark Brown

    Substitute 1 cup firmly packed light brown sugar plus 1 tablespoon molasses for 1 cup dark brown sugar.

    Substitute 1 cup granulated sugar plus 2 to 3 tablespoons molasses for 1 cup dark brown sugar.

  • Sugar, Granulated

    Substitute 1 cup firmly packed brown sugar for 1 cup granulated sugar. (Flavor will be affected somewhat.)

  • Sugar, Light Brown

    Substitute 1 cup firmly packed brown sugar for 1 cup granulated sugar. (Flavor will be affected somewhat.)

  • Sugar, Powdered

    Substitute 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/8 teaspoon cornstarch processed in a food processor fitted with a metal blade for 1 cup powdered sugar.

  • Sweetened Condensed Milk

    Substitute 1 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 2/3 cup granulated sugar, 1/2 cup boiling water and 3 tablespoons melted butter for 1 (14-ounce) can sweetened condensed milk.

  • Tomato Juice

    Substitute 1/2 cup tomato sauce and 1/2 cup water for 1 cup tomato juice.

  • Tomato Paste

    Substitute 1/2 cup tomato sauce for 1/4 cup tomato paste. Cook until sauce is reduced to 1/4 cup.

  • Tomato Puree

    Substitute 2/3 cup water and 1/3 cup tomato paste for 1 cup tomato puree.

  • Tomato Sauce

    Substitute 2/3 cup water and 1/3 cup tomato paste for 1 cup tomato puree.

  • Vanilla Bean

    Substitute 2 to 3 teaspoons vanilla extract for 1 8-inch vanilla bean.

  • Vanilla Extract

    Substitute imitation vanilla flavoring for vanilla extract.

    Substitute other flavorings, such as almond, peppermint, rum or lemon for vanilla extract (flavor differences will occur.)

  • Vegetable Oil

    Substitute equal amounts melted butter or margarine for vegetable oil.

  • Vinegar

    Substitute 2 teaspoons lemon juice for 1 teaspoon vinegar.

  • Whipping Cream

    Substitute 1/3 cup melted butter and 2/3 cup whole milk for 1 cup whipping cream.

  • White Chocolate

    Substitute 1- ounce milk chocolate for 1 ounce white chocolate. (Color and flavor will vary.)

  • Wine

    Substitute 1/2 cup fruit juice for 1/2 cup wine in desserts.

    Substitute 1/2 cup chicken broth for 1/2 cup wine in savory recipes.

  • Yeast

    Substitute 1 (.0.6-ounce) cake of compressed yeast for 1 (1/4-ounce) packet active dry yeast.

    Substitute 2 1/4 teaspoons quick rise, bread machine yeast or instant dry yeast for 1 (1/4-ounce) packet active dry yeast.

  • Yogurt

    Substitute 1 cup buttermilk or sour cream for 1 cup yogurt.