Kitchen Reference

We’re giving you the keys to the kitchen, so you can unlock your inner chef. Find a glossary of terms, techniques, equipment, ingredients and more to improve your skills in the kitchen, and bring your A game to the table.

  Ingredients List

Al Dente

To cook pasta until a slight firmness remains when bitten.


To gather necessary ingredients for a recipe together.


To cook food in an oven.


To brush or spoon a melted fat (such as butter), a liquid (such as a stock) or a marinade over food as it cooks to give flavor and moistness.


A mixture that is thin enough to pour or spoon; often made of flour, eggs and milk.


To stir rapidly by hand or with a mixer to combine ingredients or incorporate air into mixture (eg: egg whites, whipping cream).


To add a thickening ingredient such as an egg, flour or cornstarch, to hold ingredients together in soups, sauces or gravy.


To cut or tear food into small enough pieces to eat in one bite.


To cook meat or fish in a very hot skillet to give a dark, crispy crust.


To immerse food into boiling water for a short time, and then transfer to a bowl of ice water to stop the cooking process. This brings out the color in vegetables and can loosen skins on peaches or tomatoes.


To stir together two or more ingredients until just combined.


To heat a liquid mixture until bubbles break the surface; a full rolling boil cannot be stopped by stirring.


To remove the bones from poultry, meat or fish.


To brown meat or vegetables in fat over a high heat. Place meat or vegetables into a heavy pot with a small amount of liquid, and then cover and cook slowly for several hours. Can be cooked in the oven or on the stove-top.


To coat food in a dry ingredient such as flour, bread crumbs, cornmeal or cracker crumbs before sauteing or frying.


A strong mixture of water, salt and vinegar. Mixture can be used on meats to add flavor, tenderness and moistness. Spices, herbs and sweeteners can also be used in this mixture.


To cook directly above or below a heat source in the oven or on the grill.


To cook meat, vegetables or fish in water. Other ingredients such as seasonings, onions or celery can be added for additional flavor.


To cook food quickly over a high heat, often on the stove-top, to give the surface color and seal in juices.


To coat a food lightly with a marinade or liquid using a pastry brush.


To cut a food, such as shrimp, down the center, almost but not completely through.


To preserve food by placing it into a glass jar. Follow the recommended safe canning procedures.


To heat sugar until it dissolves and turns into a golden syrup, or to cook a food (such as onions) over low heat until they become soft, golden brown and sweet.


To cut food into slices (usually meat) using a sharp knife.


To keep food warm using a container such as a chafing dish or casserole, which has a heat source underneath (eg. candle).


To cool food in the refrigerator until completely cooled throughout.


To cut food into slightly irregular cubes or pieces.


To cut food into large pieces, larger than a cube.


To remove solids from a liquid to yield a clear liquid, most often used with butter to remove milk solids.

Coats a Spoon

To test for doneness; a cooked egg-based mixture (such as a custard) leaves a thin layer on a metal spoon when dipped into the mixture.


To cook eggs in simmering water, and remove from heat when eggs are cooked, as desired. Sometimes called poach.


To stir two or more ingredients with a spoon, or to beat on Low speed with a mixer, until mixed together.


To remove the center of a fruit or vegetable, which contains seeds, with a knife or apple corer.


To beat together two or more ingredients, such as butter and sugar, until the mixture is smooth, creamy, uniform consistency.

Crimp or Flute

To press together two pastry layers on edge of pie crust, sealing the dough and at the same time creating a decorative edge using fingers, a fork, or other utensil.


To break up into small pieces.


To reduce to crumbs, powder, or small pieces.


To cut meat or vegetables as examples into 1/2-inch equal-sided squares.


To overcook a mixture, such as an egg-based recipe, causing the mixture to separate. The mixture will appear lumpy. Another example is when acid, such as vinegar or lemon juice, to milk is added to milk which will then thicken and become lumpy.

Cut in

To mix a cold fat (such as butter) with flour or dry ingredients by hand until the mixture resembles coarse crumbs. This can be achieved by using a pastry blender or two tableware knives. Try this technique in our Blue Ribbon Apple Pie recipe, a classic favorite.


To add a tiny amount of an ingredient.

Deep Fry

To cook food by submerging in hot oil.


To spoon or drain fat or grease from a soup, stock, sauce or gravy. Chilling the liquid first can make this easier.


To thaw food.


To pour water, wine or stock over browned pan drippings. Stirring helps loosen drippings, while cooking to reduce to a rich liquid for sauces.


To add a spicy ingredient, such as hot pepper sauce or mustard, to food, such as eggs, making deviled eggs.


To cut into 1/8 to 1/4-inch thick cubes.


To reduce the strength of a mixture by adding liquid.


To slowly, but briefly, lower food into a melted mixture such as chocolate.


To place or sprinkle small pieces of an ingredient, over top of food, such as butter, over a fruit filling on a pie.


To pour liquid or fat from food through a strainer or colander, such as after cooking pasta.


To coat food with a dry ingredient, such as flour, bread crumbs or cornmeal before frying.


To apply a salad dressing to a salad before serving. Can also mean to clean poultry or fish before cooking.


To slowly pour a thin liquid mixture over food, such as a cookie, a quick bread or to pour a thin stream of salad dressing or vinaigrette over a salad.


To place cookies by spoonfuls onto a cookie sheet.  Also, can mean a small amount of liquid, such as food coloring.

Dry Heat

To cook by roasting, broiling or grilling.


To coat lightly with an ingredient, such as flour or powdered sugar.


To force ingredients, such as oil and a liquid, that normally wouldn't mix into a creamy mixture. Mayonnaise and salad dressing are two examples. The emulsion is created by slowly adding one liquid to the other and beating rapidly.


To cut bones from fish, meat or poultry.

Firmly Packed

To press an ingredient, such as brown sugar, tightly into a measuring cup.


To pull food, such as cooked fish, with a fork, producing small pieces as a test for doneness. Cooked fish should should break away easily into small pieces.


To pour liquor over a warm food, usually on the stove-top, and ignite.


To turn over, such as turning pancakes, to finish cooking on the other side.


To break or cut fresh broccoli or cauliflower into small clusters.


To coat food with a dry ingredient or a mixture of dry ingredients, such as white flour or other dry ingredients.


To beat a mixture until light and soft.

Fold/Fold In

To gently combine a light, airy mixture (such as beaten egg whites) with a heavier mixture. Place the lighter mixture on top of the heavier mixture, and using a rubber spatula, cut vertically down through mixtures across the bottom of the bowl and up the opposite side. Rotate the bowl a quarter turn with each stroke.


To cover a cake or cookie with icing or frosting.


To beat a light mixture or beverage until bubbles or foam form on the surface.


To cook food in hot oil over medium to high heat until brown and crisp.


To decorate a finished food, often with an herb, fruit or vegetable.


To coat food with a very thin mixture that will be smooth and glossy.

Golden Brown

To visually test for doneness of a light to medium brown color on foods, such as cookies and cakes.


To cut food into shreds, using a grater.


To coat the surface of the baking pan with shortening to prevent food from sticking.

Grease and Flour

Coat baking pan with shortening before lightly dusting with flour to prevent food from sticking. Commonly used when baking cakes.


To cook food on a grate over a heat source, such as hot coals, or a gas grill.


To reduce food to small particles. Often nuts, spices or coffee are ground. Can use a mortar and pestle, food processor, blender or small food grinder.

Hard Ball Stage

To cook sugar mixture until a drop of boiling syrup (250 to 265°F) placed into cold water forms a rigid, but somewhat, pliable ball in candy making.


To remove green stem and leaves from a strawberry. Can also mean to remove the outer husk of some nuts.


To remove the outer leaves of a vegetable, such as fresh corn, or to remove the outer husk of some nuts.


To cover a cake or cookie with mixture, such as frosting.


To force fluid into a food, most often meat, for flavor and moistness.


To cut food, such as carrots, into 1/8-inch equal-sided strips, often 1x1/8x1/8- inch.


To work dough by hand, or with a dough hook of an electric mixer, into a smooth ball to develop the gluten, or structure, of the dough.


To soak or brush food with a seasoned liquid for tenderness, moisture and flavor.


To cut food, such as carrots, into thin strips that are about 1x1/8x1/8-inch.


To apply heat to change a food from a solid to a liquid, such as butter or chocolate.


To cut into very small pieces, such as garlic.


To stir two or more ingredients until mixture is thoroughly combined and uniform in texture.

Moist Heat

To cook, such as braising, stewing, or pot roasting.


To crush or mash with a spoon or tool called a muddler. Often used with mint leaves and sugar.

Pan Broil

To cook food quickly in a preheated pan with little or no butter or oil.

Pan Sear

To cook tender cuts of meat in butter or oil in a heavy skillet over high heat, which produces a golden crust.

Par Boil

To cook food partially in boiling water, then continue cooking using another method. For example, par boiling potatoes and then threading on skewers and grilling.


To cut off a thin layer of skin on a food, such as potatoes or apples, with a paring knife or vegetable peeler.

Partially Set

To test for doneness in which the mixture is set but still fluid enough to add ingredients, such as when making gelatin.


To lightly touch a surface to flatten.

Pea-Sized Crumbs

To describe the size of the pieces in a mixture of flour, butter and other ingredients.


To remove the skin or rind from a fruit or vegetable.


To add a tiny amount (about 1/16th teaspoon) of a dry ingredient such as salt. The amount should be able to be held between the thumb and forefinger.


To decorate food with a mixture, such as frosting or whipped cream, using a pastry bag or tube.


To remove the stone or seed of a fruit, such as cherries, apricot and peaches. This is sometimes called the stone.


To remove the stone or seed of a fruit such as cherries, apricot and peaches. This is also what the stone is called.


To soak dried fruits or vegetables in liquid until they swell.


To cook food in a liquid to just below the boiling point. Often used to cook eggs, fruit or poultry.


To flatten or tenderize a piece of meat.


To cook, following safe recommended canning procedures, sealing the filled canning jars. Also to beat ingredients, using a food processor.


To use an on and off speed motion when combining a mixture in a food processor or blender.


To reduce to a powder or dust.


To mash or grind food until a thick, smooth consistency is achieved.


To cut or divide into four equal parts.


To soak dried foods in a liquid to rehydrate.


To boil a sauce or liquid rapidly until the sauce is boiled down or evaporated and it thickens.


To re-warm food.


To heat a solid animal fat over low heat until melted; remove solids.


To push a soft food, such as potatoes, through a potato ricer or strainer.


To describe the outer skin of citrus fruits.


To cook meat or vegetables in a shallow, uncovered pan in the oven. This yields a brown exterior and a moist interior.

Roll Up Jelly-Roll Fashion

To roll dough and filling together, beginning with narrow side of dough, and ending with a log shape. Seal ends of dough.

Rolling Boil

To describe a mixture that cooks or boils so hard it cannot be stirred down.


To apply a seasoned mixture, dry or a paste, onto the surface of meat, providing flavor to the meat. 


To cook food quickly in a small amount of oil or fat in a skillet until light brown.


To heat liquid to just below the boiling point until tiny bubbles form around the edge.


To cut shallow slashes, along the surface of meat, to tenderize. The peel of a vegetable, such as cucumbers, can also be scored for a decorative look.


To stir gently with a fork or spoon while cooking; eggs are often scrambled.


To brown meat quickly in a skillet over high heat or using a broiler to seal in meat juices.


To apply a flavor ingredient, such as salt and pepper. Cast iron pans are also seasoned by rubbing the pan with solid shortening and heating in the oven. This coats the pan and prevents sticking and rusting of the pan.


To remove the seeds from a fruit or vegetable.


To divide in half or into parts. Sometimes referred to when removing the egg yolk from the egg white.


To test for doneness when the surface of the food is firm to the touch.


To slice a very thin layer, such as chocolate, for a garnish.


To remove the outer covering of foods, such as eggs, nuts, or fresh peas.


To cut into narrow strips with a shredder or food processor, using the shredding disk. Can also mean to shred cooked meat or poultry by pulling apart with two forks.


To strain dry or wet ingredients through the holes of a strainer or sieve. Eg. removing seeds from raspberry jam.


To pass an ingredient, such as powdered sugar, through a sieve or sifter to make smooth and lump-free.


To cook foods gently in a liquid at a low temperature at just below the boiling point. Tiny bubbles appear on the surface.


To thread meat, such as vegetables or fruit, onto metal rods or bamboo sticks called skewers for grilling.


To spoon off top layer of fat, such as for gravy or soup.


To remove the outer layer on meat, fish, or poultry.


To cut into thin, flat pieces, or to cut through with a knife.


To cut food into long, thin strips.


To cut food into long, thin strips.

Soft Ball Stage

To cook a sugar mixture until a drop of boiling syrup (usually between 234 to 240°F) is put into cold water. A soft ball that flattens when removed indicates it is at the soft ball stage in candy making.

Soft Crack Stage

To cook a sugar mixture until a drop of boiling syrup (usually between 274 to 290°F) is put into cold water. If the syrup separates into hard threads, it is at the soft crack stage in candy making.

Soft Peaks

To beat whipping cream or egg whites until peaks curl over when beaters are lifted out of the bowl.


To cover evenly.


To scatter lightly.


To cook on a rack above boiling liquid in a tightly covered pan.


To soak dry ingredients, such as tea, coffee or spices, in a hot liquid.


To cook food in enough liquid to barely cover the ingredients in a tightly covered pan. Usually cooks for several hours on the stove-top or in the oven.

Stiff Peaks

To beat whipping cream or egg whites until the peaks stand up straight when the beaters are lifted up out of the bowl.


To mix ingredients in a circular motion with a spoon.

Stir Constantly

To stir during the entire time the mixture is cooking.


To cook small pieces of food quickly in a large pan over high heat, stirring constantly.


A well-flavored broth that is made by simmering meat, poultry, fish or vegetables with herbs, spices or vegetables.


To remove any solids from a liquid by pouring through a sieve or colander.


To fill a cavity in poultry or a vegetable (eggplant, zucchini, tomato) with a well-seasoned mixture prior to cooking.


To cook vegetables in a small amount of fat over low heat in a covered pan, until juices form and vegetables begin to brown.


To defrost frozen food.


To add more liquid to a mixture to dilute.


To place chunks of vegetables, meat or fruit on a skewer.


To brown food by heating in a toaster or under the broiler, such as bread, or in an oven when cooking nuts.


To turn food over lightly with a large spoon and fork to coat ingredients; often a term used with salads.


To cut off unwanted fat on meat, or to remove stems or leaves on fruits or vegetables.


A triangular shape; such as a wedge of lemon, or a wedge of pie.


To combine two or more ingredients using a wire whisk. Also can be a kitchen tool with looped wires, incorporating air as the mixture is beat. Sometimes referred to as a whisk.


To combine two or more ingredients using a kitchen tool with looped wires, incorporating air as the mixture is beat. Sometimes referred to as whip.


To heat food until limp, such as to add a hot dressing to leafy vegetables like spinach for a wilted spinach salad.


To remove the outer layer of a citrus fruit, using a zester or paring knife.